Sydney is the largest city in Australia with an area of 12,144.6 km² and an estimated population of about 4.50 million people in 2009. The population density is 371 people/km². Sydney is the capital of the state of New South Wales. Sydney is located on the south-eastern coast of Australia. Coordinates: 33°52′10″ S. 151°12′30″ E. Time zone: UTC+10, in summer UTC+11. Phone code: +61 2. Official website: cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au
History of Sydney
Aborigines lived on the territory of Sydney as far back as 30,000 years ago. In 1770, James Cook made the first expedition to Australia. After that, it was decided to establish a colony on these lands. In 1788, 11 ships arrived on the mainland and their passengers settled in Port Jackson Bay. The colony was named after the British secretary Lord Sidney. The city became a place of exile for prisoners. In 1820 about half the population was made up of convicts.
In 1808, the town was stirred up by the Rum Riot. The cause of the riot was an attempt by New South Wales Governor William Bligh to end the liquor monopoly. The officers were using alcohol instead of money and thus turning the population into slaves. As a result, the governor was removed from office and arrested. This case is the only example of an armed seizure of power on the mainland. A new military garrison was later sent to Australia to take over the situation and punish the rioting officers.
Sydney is a multicultural and multicultural city of the world. In terms of cost of living, the city ranks first in Australia. Services, manufacturing, commerce, utilities, and health care are the most important sectors of the economy. The Reserve Bank of Australia, the Australian Securities Exchange, the headquarters of 90 banks – are located in Sydney.
There are high-speed roads in the city, which are divided into paid and free. Sydney has a well-developed network of buses, cabs and trains. There are passenger ferries.
The Sydney Opera House (1973) is a building known the world over for its whimsical design. Its area reaches 2.2 hectares. The opera was designed by Jorn Watzon. The building is located near the second famous landmark – Harbor Bridge, nicknamed among the people “the hanger. Harbor was built in 1932 during the Great Depression. “The Hanger” is the city’s largest bridge and one of the largest arched bridges in the world. Some of the largest liners can pass under it.
The tallest building in the city is the Sydney Tower (1975). Its height reaches 305 m. In Australia, only the skyscraper Q1 towers above the tower. Sydney Tower is included in the list of the World Federation of Tall Towers.
At the end of the Darling Harbor neighborhood is the decorative Chinese Friendship Garden (1988). The attraction is styled as a Ming dynasty garden. Chinese landscape art is shown here at the highest level.
The oldest observatory in Australia is the Sydney Observatory (1858), which is included in the list of cultural heritage of the country. The observatory contains a unique telescope made back in 1874.
Another attraction of the city is the Sydney IMAX Theatre. The building has an unusual diamond shape and bright color. This theater has the world’s largest screen, which is 29.42 m high and 35.73 m wide.
The most beautiful church in Sydney is the Cathedral of the Virgin Mary, built in 1868 on the site of a burned cathedral. The architecture of the site is typical of the Gothic Revival of the XIX century. The cathedral is known for its stained-glass windows on which the work lasted about 50 years.
In Sydney is worth a visit to the Aquarium (1988), which is one of the largest aquariums in the world. It is home to over 650 species of Australian flora and fauna. The aquarium was opened on Australia’s 200th birthday. Animal lovers will love Taronga Zoo (1916), which is home to more than 2,600 animals. The area of the zoo is 21 hectares.